[Listening] Why plague doctors wore beaked masks
In 1656, as your body experiences violent chills and your head throbs with pain, you feel too weak to sit up. Amidst your feverish state, you catch sight of an unfamiliar figure donning a peculiar beak-shaped mask and full-body covering. Despite not seeing his face, you immediately recognize that you have contracted the plague. In light of this, Stephanie Honchell Smith delves into the origins of these distinctive garbs worn by plague doctors.
- Rancid (hôi thối, ôi thiu): having a disagreeable smell or taste, especially because of spoilage or decomposition.
- Emanating (phát ra, toả ra, thoát ra): originating from; arising from a source.
- Macabre (đáng sợ, kinh khủng, dữ tợn): disturbing and horrifying because of involvement with or depiction of death and injury.
- Mainstays (trụ cột, nền tảng, điểm tựa chính): a basic or essential component that is relied upon.
- Cautery (phương pháp đốt, gắt, tiêu diệt mô bị sẩy): the process of burning or searing a wound or tissue with a heated instrument or chemical to stop bleeding or destroy abnormal tissue.
- Violent chills (cảm giác rét run, giật mình): a sudden feeling of coldness that causes shaking and shivering.
- Aftershocks (dư chấn): a smaller earthquake that follows a larger one and has its epicenter near the same location.
- Devastating (tàn phá, phá hủy, làm tan hoang): causing great destruction or damage.
- Pungent (cay nồng, hăng, đặc trưng, mạnh mẽ): having a strong, sharp smell or taste that is often unpleasant.
- Miasma (hơi độc, mùi khó chịu, khí độc): a highly unpleasant or unhealthy smell or vapor believed to be capable of causing illness.
- Hazmat suit (bộ đồ bảo hộ chống chất độc hại): a specialized suit designed to protect the wearer from hazardous materials and substances.
- Antidote (thuốc giải độc, biện pháp hành động để ngăn chặn tác dụng của độc tố): a medicine or other remedy that counteracts the effects of a poison.
- Bloodletting (thuốc giãn mạch, thủ thuật lấy máu): the practice of draining blood from a person to cure or prevent illness.
- Cupping (phương pháp châm cứu, sử dụng cốc thủy tinh tạo áp lực, giúp điều hòa khí huyết, giảm đau): a therapy in which heated cups are applied to the skin to create a suction effect, believed to improve blood flow and alleviate pain.
- Cautery (phương pháp đốt): the process of burning or searing tissue with a hot instrument or caustic substance to remove or treat it.
- Ward off (tránh): to prevent something unpleasant from harming or coming close to you.
- Pomanders (túi thơm): a small ball made of sweet-smelling substances, carried especially in former times to protect against bad smells and infection.
- Unintentional: not planned.
- Macabre (rùng rợn): used to describe something that is very unpleasant because it is connected with death or violence.
- Robust (cường tráng): strong and healthy.
LISTENING COMPREHENSON CHECK
Answer these questions about the article. The answers are in WHITE so please BLACKEN them and you will see them.
1. What was the main purpose of the plague doctor's outfit during the 17th century outbreaks of the plague in Western Europe?
a) To prevent the transmission of the Yersinia pestis bacteria from one person to another
b) To ward off poisoned air known as miasma
c) To protect the doctors from flea bites
d) To conduct bloodletting and cupping procedures more easily
Answer: b) To ward off poisoned air known as miasma
2. What inspired the recipe of the pungent combination of herbs and compounds that were filled in the beak of the plague doctor's outfit?
a) The works of Galen, a 2nd century Greco-Roman physician
b) The recipe for an ancient Roman dish called "Garum"
c) The writings of the famous philosopher and physician Aristotle
d) The study of medieval alchemy and chemistry
Answer: a) The works of Galen, a 2nd century Greco-Roman physician
3. What were metal pomanders used for by doctors in earlier centuries across Europe?
a) To block miasma from entering through the skin's pores
b) To conduct bloodletting and cupping procedures more easily
c) To ward off fleas that transmitted the plague
d) To store and carry medical instruments and supplies
Answer: a) To block miasma from entering through the skin's pores
4. Which of the following was NOT a pre-modern medical practice used by doctors during outbreaks of the plague?
Answer: c) Vaccination
5. What hasn't changed since the time of the plague outbreaks in human history?
a) The effectiveness of pre-modern medical practices like bloodletting and cupping
b) The belief that miasma is a cause of disease
c) The need for courageous and compassionate medical professionals
d) The use of the plague doctor's outfit as a popular costume
Answer: c) The need for courageous and compassionate medical professionals